Latest Post

Pimple on Tongue

Tongue is a very essential part of body and is engaged in many features like discussing, eating, consuming and ingesting the meals and many others. The taste-buds existing on the tongue help us identify the flavor of a particular meals we are consuming. In this respect the value of tongue cannot be denied. Usually we take our tongue for granted and do not pay interest to it until the time comes when it becomes harm of something. When the tongue becomes painful and begins hurting, then that is an escalating scenario for us and we start thinking about the situation of our tongue.

However some issues of tongue are so small and slight that they should not be taken serious. For example the issue of tongue in which it begins creating acne or lesions on its area is often taken by some people with alarm. However in many situations it is recommended that this scenario not be taken with alarm as it is a scenario of typical event. There are many factors for development of pimples on tongue. Some of these factors might not be escalating while some other factors are very risky and should be resolved as soon as possible. However, whatever scenario produces, there is always some kind of pathological base associated with it.

What are different pathologies of tongue?

It has been described by different expert doctors and people that development of blisters on tongue due to acne or bumps should not always be taken mild.

  • Sometimes there appear to be no reason for the development of mounds or acne on the tongue. There might be many factors for this development.
  • Sometimes these acne can be due to any allergies or could be viral in nature.
  • In addition to this, herpes simplex viraus may also be the reason of developing pimples in the tongue.
  • Sometimes some other microbe infections and illnesses may cause the issue of development of pimples on tongue. These consist of bacterial infections or any immunologic disorder.

There are certain circumstances in which having pimples on tongue can be analyzed or evaluated. If you are having acne on both sides of the tongue, this is not a thing that one need to worry. However if the overall appearance of these pimple is only on the upper or lower part of tongue, it should be given attention about and followed. Development of bright and red places on tongue along with the hard lumps and blisters is a risky sign and should be examined by the doctor and handled.

What can be done to avoid tongue pathologies?

Having a acne on tongue is often known as a scenario which is indicated in healthcare conditions as the transient lingual papillitis shortened as TLP. To keep excellent health and to avoid tongue pathologies, it is essential to concentrate on dental cleanliness. Cleaning your teeth and tongue consistently avoid connection of rotting meals trash on the dental coating and also avoid the development of viruses and other bad viruses in oral cavity.

July 2012 Nursing Board (NLE) Exam Results

The result for the June-July 2012 Nursing Board Exam is expected to be released within this month. For the meantime, you may subscribed or bookmark this page so that you will be updated once the result is officially released by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC).

The last NLE Results, only 33.92% passed the Nursing Licensure Examination given by the Board of Nursing and this was held in different cities in the country including Cebu, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, Dagupan, Manila, Baguio, Iloilo, La Union, Lucena, Legazpi, Pagadian, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tacloban, Tuguegarao, and Zamboanga last December 2011.

July 2012 Nursing Board Exam (NLE) Result

The June 2012 Nursing Board Exam Results also known as the Nursing Licensure Examination Results for July 2012 will be posted here very soon! Stay tuned for more updates!

UPDATE 06/20/2012: The July 2012 Nursing Board Exam Results also known as the Nursing Licensure Examination Results has been released today! Check it out at, or

The result of the July 2012 Nursing Board Exam (NLE) will be posted in this site. For the meantime, you may subscribe to get the full list of successful passers of July 2012 NLE.

The result will be posted in alphabetical order for easy browsing of the names of successful passers. Also the top 10 students and the best performing schools will be posted here.

During the December 2011 nursing board exam, the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) announces that 22,760 out of 67,095 passed the Nurse Licensure Examination given by the Board of Nursing in the cities of Manila, Baguio, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Dagupan, Davao, Iloilo, La Union, Legazpi, Lucena, Nueva Ecija, Pagadian, Pampanga, Tacloban, Tuguegarao and Zamboanga last December 2011.

We are all hoping that the passing rate for this year will be higher compare to the past years. Good luck to all of the candidates.

Top 4 Body Pains You Should Never Ignore

Pain, regardless if it’s from a minor wound or a serious fracture, is a signal that there’s something wrong in our system. In the Nursing world, pain is actually considered as the fifth vital sign in addition to temperature, blood pressure, respiratory rate and heart rate. We dread any idea that involves pain because more often than not, pain can be tantamount to a serious medical condition.

However, telling  which body pain is “harmless” and which requires medical attention can be quite overwhelming especially today that fatal diseases can be masked by pains associated with less severe conditions.  Pain didn’t become the “fifth vital sign” for no reason; it can lead to death if you continue to underestimate your body’s capability to alert you  about an impending health danger. Here are just four of the most important body pains that can lead to fatal conditions if necessary management will not be done:

1. Jaw Pain (can be accompanied by chest, abdominal, shoulder or throat pain)

What causes it?

It could be a sign of a minor tooth ache but if the pain is dull,  located at the lower left side of the jaw and changes its intensity over a span of few minutes, then you have a valid reason to call your doctor. According to Dr. Memeth Oz, this type of “referred pain” happens when nerves surrounding a failing  heart send pain signals to the spine and into the body parts near the heart like the left shoulder, arm, throat and upper chest.

When is it dangerous?

If the jaw pain is aggravated by chewing, it is very likely that your heart has nothing to do with the pain. However, when it is accompanied by other manifestations like chest discomfort (described as an “elephant sitting on one’s chest”), nausea, dizziness, ringing sensation in the ears, pain in left shoulder and arm, you must do all means to get some professional help immediately.

Women, on the other hand, experience more subtle signs like GI distress and their risk of having a heart attack increases once they reach menopausal stage. Most of these signs and symptoms that were  mentioned have been linked to an impending heart attack but most people tend to be lax and take these warning signs for granted. According to Dr. Jerome Cohen of WebMD, “Too often people delay because they misinterpret it as [heartburn] or GI distress. Call 911 or get to an emergency room or physician’s office. If it turns out to be something else, that’s great.”

2. Leg Pain

What  causes it?

Pain in your calf should not be a source of concern if it occurs after you joined a marathon for the first time. Without any warm-up exercise to condition your legs, it is more likely that the pain you got is due to a pulled muscle or accumulation of lactic acid within your calf muscles. However, in the case of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), calf pain is due to impaired blood flow to the legs brought about by a blood clot. This is a serious condition that requires serious intervention.

When is it dangerous?

DVT or deep vein thrombosis is caused by long periods of immobility and impaired blood flow to the legs. Risk factors of DVT include obesity, cancer, pregnancy and sitting for long periods of time. DVT occurs when blood clot forms in the affected calf; once it dislodges, it can travel to various organs of the body like brain, heart and lungs. Pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lungs) is one major example of DVT complication which can lead to death if proper  medical management will not be applied. Aside from pain , DVT is also manifested by warm, red and swollen calf not associated to any injury.

3. Headache

What  causes it?

If you have headache associated with colds, it’s probably sinus headache. If you have been sleepless, it’s no-brainer that your headache is caused by an obvious lack of sleep or too much stress. However, if you think that you’re having the “worst headache” of your life, there is a big possibility that brain aneurysm is on its way to kill you. Brain aneurysm happens when the blood vessels in your brain literally explode and increases the pressure within your skull. This is very  fatal in most cases especially if immediate medical attention will not be applied.

When is it dangerous?

Headaches associated with  brain aneurysm are “like an ice pick drilling your skull”. The pain is also accompanied by  nausea, blurring of vision and dizziness. If you feel the initial sign of severe headache, go straight to the ER and waste no time because more often than not, people with brain aneurysm die instantly.

4. Severe Abdominal Pain

What  causes it?

Possible causes of abdominal pain are stomach upset, constipation, intestinal obstruction, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gallstones, appendicitis or pancreatic diseases.

When is it dangerous?

Ruptured appendix is indicated by rebound tenderness in right lower portion of the abdomen. On the other hand, severe abdominal pain (usually located at upper right corner of the abdomen) not relieved by any antacid or body movements are some of the tell-tale signs that you have gallstones. The pain usually occurs about 40 minutes after eating fatty foods and can lead to certain complications like pancreatitis and ruptured gallbladder.


“4 Body Pains You Should Never Ignore”. March 20,2012

“7 Pains You Shouldn’t Ignore” by Leana Skarnulis.

Top 10 Heart Attack Symptoms You Should NOT Ignore

Heart attack doesn’t always start with chest pain and ends with chest pain. As a matter of fact, there are a lot of other symptoms that can alarm you for an impending heart attack. Sadly, most of these symptoms are either taken for granted or dismissed as nothing out of ordinary.  Last year, for example, a landmark study by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) published in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Institute found that 95 percent of women who’d had heart attacks reported experiencing symptoms in the weeks and months before the attack — but the symptoms weren’t the expected chest pain, so they went unrecognized. To help you out, here are the top 10 heart attack symptoms that are commonly ignored today:

1. Sense of Being “out of yourself”

Commonly experienced by older adults as ”just didn’t seem like themselves” kind of feeling, symptoms can range from fatigue, palpitations to other more vague symptoms like memory loss and decreased alertness. Anything out of ordinary should alarm their loved ones.

2. Rapid  heart rate

Known in medical world as ventricular tachycardia, this rapid heart beat can last for a few seconds or longer. People who experienced this felt like they joined a marathon when actually they didn’t. More often than not, a rapid heart rate can occur even during resting state.

3. Flu-like symptoms

Flu-like symptoms like clammy, sweaty skin, along with feeling light-headed, fatigued, and weak might not alarm you but if it’s not aggravated by high body temperature or feeling of heaviness in your chest area is present, you better let your doctor check it because it might be a heart attack waiting for its right time.

4. Insomnia

Though experts are not yet equipped with explanation, those who got heart attack have reported to experience sleeplessness, anxiety, or a feeling of an “impending doom” months or days before the attack. Of course, those who have been insomniacs for quite a long time already are out of this issue.

5. Swelling and pain in the leg area

Because the heart’s pumping action has been disrupted, chances are the circulation of blood and supply of oxygen to different parts of the body will be affected tremendously. As a result, edema or swelling in the legs due to accumulation of blood will be evident. Leg pains are also present because of insufficient oxygen supply to this area.

6. Breathlessness

Due to insufficient oxygen supply in the blood, light-headedness and dizziness can be experienced as part of the body’s response mechanism.

7. Fatigue

According to studies, a sense of “crushing” fatigue are usually experienced by heart attack patients months before the event. More than 70 percent of women in last year’s NIH study, for example, reported extreme fatigue in the weeks or months prior to their heart attack.

8. Sexual Dysfunction

Men usually get problems in erection because when arteries and blood supply of the heart are damaged, the same structures in the penis area are affected as well.

9. Jaw, Ear, Neck, or Shoulder Pain

This type of pain is the most neglected because people do expect that for a pain to be a potential heart attack symptom, it should come only from the chest area. However, recent reports have proven that intermittent pain that can radiate from the jaw to ears are one of the most reliable indicators of a deadly heart attack.

10. Abdominal discomfort

Symptoms can range from mild indigestion to severe nausea, cramping, and vomiting. You can’t always attribute these symptoms to an impending heart attack but there’s a reason to suspect if abdominal discomfort is being experienced by someone who hasn’t eaten anything bad or doesn’t have stomach illness.


Eliminate Uric Acid Gout in 2 Hours With Bicarbonate of Soda

Here, you'll discover a simple uric acid cure using bicarbonate of soda. When suffering from gout many folks first thoughts are drug-based treatments. But something as simple as a bicarbonate of soda drink can eliminate the pain and symptoms of gout pretty quickly. More and more sufferers are turning to natural treatments to eliminate their gout symptoms.

The benefits of using bicarbonate of soda as an easy uric acid cure are that it can help;

(1) dissolve uric acid crystals
(2) reduce pain
(3) make uric acid more soluble and easier to excrete
(4) increase body fluid volume which helps the kidneys do their job more effectively
(5) boost urine pH which helps reduce the risk of uric acid kidney stone formation

But before I show you your uric acid cure in detail, let's quickly go over what causes your gout symptoms of redness, swelling, heat, inflammation and extreme pain. These are actually caused by crystals which have formed in your joints; most usually the big toe, although other joints can be affected. They are so painful because the crystals are in the form of tiny 'needles', which can be clearly seen under the microscope.

The crystals themselves are formed out of excess uric acid in your bloodstream which your kidneys have been unable to process properly. Uric acid is a byproduct of the breakdown of natural purines in your body cells and food. Purines are chemical compounds that play an important role in providing our protein and energy needs. Normally, your kidneys then process and flush excess uric acid out of your body via urine. But sometimes this doesn't happen properly and you end up with excess acid in your blood, hence the crystals and a gout attack.

And because many gout victims suffer really nasty side effects using mainstream drug-based treatment, they are turning more and more to natural gout remedies that don't have these side effects and are way cheaper too. These are things like dietary changes (remember purines!), herbs, natural supplements, particular fruits and berries such as cherries and strawberries, etc.

One natural remedy that many folks don't know about is bicarbonate of soda. When mixed with water and taken over a period of time, it can relieve the symptoms quite quickly; in as little as 2 hours depending on the severity of the gout attack.

Here's how to take your uric acid cure...

Add half a teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda to 8 ounces of water (a typical 8 oz glass). Make sure to mix thoroughly. Stick to the following schedule: Drink a glass just before going to bed; a glass immediately on getting up in the morning; a glass every 2 to 4 hours in between meals. Do not take more than 4 teaspoons of bicarbonate of soda per day, i.e. 8 glasses per day. Continue with this regimen until the symptoms disappear.

Since bicarbonate of soda is high in sodium, you need to reduce your salt intake (salt and diet). And if you suffer from hypertension, keep checking your blood pressure. If it rises, stop the treatment immediately. In any case, seek your doctor's advice before starting the course.

Now many folks have found this uric acid cure to be very effective. However, it's used simply to eliminate the symptoms of an actual gout attack, it cannot prevent your gout returning. And recurring gout has to be avoided at all costs since -- apart from the excruciating pain -- it can cause you permanent joint damage and kidney problems down the line. So it isn't enough just to keep treating the symptoms when they occur, you need to prevent them from returning ever again.

You can quickly discover how to do this with an easy, step-by-step, natural gout remedy report that thousands of ex-gout victims around the world have successfully used.

This report has everything covered; diets (very important), herbal remedies, natural medicines, supplements, vital vitamins, detoxing, etc. Everything you need to cure gout now and prevent it returning, and, all in one easy to read report, that you can download straight away. Go here now and start on your guaranteed gout cure in minutes.

Article Source: Article Source:—How-to-Eliminate-Uric-Acid-Gout-in-2-Hours-With-Bicarbonate-of-Soda&id=2983862

Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Theory

It is important to understand definitions of nursing theory before moving to theory analysis and evaluation. These definitions direct examination of structure, content, and purposes of theories. Although each of these definitions is adequate for study of any nursing theory, the definition that seems to best fit with the particular purpose for study of theory should be chosen. For example, one of the definitions by Chinn and Jacobs (1987) and Chin and Kramer (1995) may be chosen for using theory in research. The definition by Silva (1997) may be more appropriate for study of nursing theory for use in practice. Another way to think about this is to consider whether the definition of nursing theory in use fits the theory being analyzed and evaluated. Look carefully at the theory, read the theory as presented by the theorist, and read what others have written about the theory. The whole theory must be studied. Parts of the theory without the whole will not be fully meaningful and may lead to misunderstanding. Before selecting a guide for analysis and evaluation, consider the level and scope of the theory, as discussed in the previous chapter. Is the theory a grand nursing theory? A philosophy? A middle-range nursing theory? A practice theory? Not all aspects of theory described in an evaluation guide will be evident in all levels of theory. For example, questions about the metaparadigm are probably not appropriate to use in analyzing middle-range theories. Whall (1996) recognizes this in offering particular guides for analysis and evaluation that vary according to three types of nursing theory: models, middle-range theories, and practice theories.

Theory analysis and evaluation may be thought of as one process or as a two-step sequence. It may be helpful to think of analysis of theory as necessary for adequate study of a nursing theory and evaluation of theory as the assessment of the utility of a theory for particular purposes. Guides for theory evaluation are intended as tools to inform us about theories, and to encourage further development, refinement, and use of theory. There are no guides for theory analysis and evaluation that are adequate and appropriate for every nursing theory.

Johnson (1974) wrote about three basic criteria to guide evaluation of nursing theory. These have continued in use over time and offer direction for guides in use today. These criteria are that the theory should: • define the congruence of nursing practice with societal expectations of nursing decisions and actions; • clarify the social significance of nursing, or the impact of nursing on persons receiving nursing; and • describe social utility, or usefulness of the theory in practice, research, and education.

Following are outlines of the most frequently used guides for analysis and evaluation. These guides are components of the entire work about nursing theory of the individual nursing scholar and offer various interesting approaches to the study of nursing theory. Each guide should be studied in more detail than is offered in this introduction and should be examined in context of the whole work of the individual nurse scholar.

The approach to theory analysis set forth by Chinn and Kramer (1995) is to use guidelines for describing nursing theory that are based on their definition of theory that is presented in Chapter 1. The guidelines set forth questions that clarify the facts about aspects of theory: purpose, concepts, definitions, relationships, structure, assumptions, and scope. These authors suggest that the next step in the process of evaluation is critical reflection about whether and how the nursing theory works. Questions are posed to guide this reflection:
• Is the theory clearly stated?
• Is it stated simply?
• Can the theory be generalized?
• Is the theory accessible?
• How important is the theory?

Fawcett (1993) developed a framework of questions that separates the activities of analysis and evaluation. Questions for analysis in this framework flow from the structural hierarchy of nursing knowledge proposed by Fawcett. The questions for evaluation guide examination of theory content and use for practical purposes. Following is a summary of the Fawcett (1993) framework.

For Theory Analysis, Consideration Is Given To:
• scope of the theory
• metaparadigm concepts and propositions included in the theory
• values and beliefs reflected in the theory
• relation of the theory to a conceptual model and to related disciplines
• concepts and propositions of the theory

For Theory Evaluation, Consideration Is Given To:
• significance of the theory and relations with structure of knowledge
• consistency and clarity of concepts, expressed in congruent, concise language
• adequacy for use in research, education, and practice

• feasibility to apply the theory in practical contexts

Meleis (1997) states that the structural and functional components of a theory should be studied prior to evaluation. The structural components are assumptions, concepts, and propositions of the theory. Functional components include descriptions of the following: focus, client, nursing care, health, nurse-client interactions, environment, and nursing problems and interventions. After studying these dimensions of the theory, critical examination of these elements may take place, as summarized below:
• Relations between structure and function of the theory, including clarity, consistency, and simplicity
• Diagram of theory to understand further the theory by creating a visual representation
• Contagiousness, or adoption of the theory by a wide variety of students, researchers, and practitioners, as reflected in the literature
• Usefulness in practice, education, research, and administration
• External components of personal, professional, and social values, and significance

Choosing a Nursing Theory to Study

It is important to give adequate attention to selection of theories for study. Results of this work may have lasting influences on one’s nursing practice. For all the reasons already offered in this book, aspects of one’s personal and professional life may encounter challenges and growth. It is not unusual for nurses who begin to work with nursing theory to realize their practice is changing and that their future efforts in the discipline and practice of nursing are markedly altered.

There is always some measure of hope mixed with anxiety as nurses seriously explore nursing theory for the first time. Individual nurses who practice with a group of colleagues often wonder how to select and study nursing theories. Nurses and nursing students in courses considering nursing theory have similar questions. Nurses in new practice settings designed and developed by nurses have the same concerns about getting started as do nurses in hospital organizations who want more from their nursing. The following exercise is grounded in the belief that the study and use of nursing theory in nursing practice must have roots in the practice of the nurses involved. Moreover, the nursing theory used by particular nurses must reflect elements of practice that are essential to those nurses while at the same time bringing focus and freshness to that practice. This exercise calls on the nurse to think about the major components of nursing, and calls forth the values
and beliefs nurses hold most dear. In these ways, the exercise begins to parallel knowledge development reflected in the nursing metaparadigm and nursing philosophies as described in Chapter 1. From this point on, the nurse is guided to connect nursing theory and nursing practice in the context of nursing situations. It is from these experiences that decisions about nursing theory and practice are derived.
Support : Creating Website | Johny Template | Mas Template
Copyright © 2011. NCLEX Reviewer - All Rights Reserved
Template Created by Creating Website Published by Mas Template
Proudly powered by Blogger