Leadership, Management, Bioethics and Research

1. Ms. Castro is newly-promoted to a patient care manager position. She updates her knowledge on the theories in management and leadership in order to become effective in her new role. She learns that some managers have low concern for services and high concern for staff. Which style of management refers to this?
A.Organization Man
B.Impoverished Management
C.Country Club Management
D.Team Management

Answer: (C) Country Club Management
Country club management style puts concern for the staff as number one priority at the expense of the delivery of services. He/she runs the department just like a country club where every one is happy including the manager.
2. Her former manager demonstrated passion for serving her staff rather than being served. She takes time to listen, prefers to be a teacher first before being a leader, which is characteristic of
A.Transformational leader
B.Transactional leader
C.Servant leader
D.Charismatic leader

Answer: (C) Servant leader
Servant leaders are open-minded, listen deeply, try to fully understand others and not being judgmental
3. On the other hand, Ms. Castro notices that the Chief Nurse Executive has charismatic leadership style. Which of the following behaviors best describes this style?
A.Possesses inspirational quality that makes followers gets attracted of him and regards him with reverence
B.Acts as he does because he expects that his behavior will yield positive results
C.Uses visioning as the core of his leadership
D.Matches his leadership style to the situation at hand.

Answer: (A) Possesses inspirational quality that makes followers gets attracted of him and regards him with reverence
Charismatic leaders make the followers feel at ease in their presence. They feel that they are in good hands whenever the leader is around.
4. Which of the following conclusions of Ms. Castro about leadership characteristics is TRUE?
A.There is a high correlation between the communication skills of a leader and the ability to get the job done.
B.A manager is effective when he has the ability to plan well.
C.Assessment of personal traits is a reliable tool for predicting a manager’s potential.
D.There is good evidence that certain personal qualities favor success in managerial role.

Answer: (C) Assessment of personal traits is a reliable tool for predicting a manager’s potential.
It is not conclusive that certain qualities of a person would make him become a good manager. It can only predict a manager’s potential of becoming a good one.
5. She reads about Path Goal theory. Which of the following behaviors is manifested by the leader who uses this theory?
A.Recognizes staff for going beyond expectations by giving them citations
B.Challenges the staff to take individual accountability for their own practice
C.Admonishes staff for being laggards.
D.Reminds staff about the sanctions for non performance.

Answer: (A) Recognizes staff for going beyond expectations by giving them citations
Path Goal theory according to House and associates rewards good performance so that others would do the same
6. One leadership theory states that “leaders are born and not made,” which refers to which of the following theories?
A.Trait
B.Charismatic
C.Great Man
D.Situational

Answer: (C) Great Man
Leaders become leaders because of their birth right. This is also called Genetic theory or the Aristotelian theory

7. She came across a theory which states that the leadership style is effective dependent on the situation. Which of the following styles best fits a situation when the followers are self-directed, experts and are matured individuals?
A.Democratic
B.Authoritarian
C.Laissez faire
D.Bureaucratic

Answer: (C) Laissez faire
Laissez faire leadership is preferred when the followers know what to do and are experts in the field. This leadership style is relationship-oriented rather than task-centered.
8. She surfs the internet for more information about leadership styles. She reads about shared leadership as a practice in some magnet hospitals. Which of the following describes this style of leadership?
A.Leadership behavior is generally determined by the relationship between the leader’s personality and the specific situation
B.Leaders believe that people are basically good and need not be closely controlled
C.Leaders rely heavily on visioning and inspire members to achieve results
D.Leadership is shared at the point of care.

Answer: (D) Leadership is shared at the point of care.
Shared governance allows the staff nurses to have the authority, responsibility and accountability for their own practice.
9. Ms. Castro learns that some leaders are transactional leaders. Which of the following does NOT characterize a transactional leader?
A.Focuses on management tasks
B.Is a caretaker
C.Uses trade-offs to meet goals
D.Inspires others with vision

Answer: (D) Inspires others with vision
Inspires others with a vision is characteristic of a transformational leader. He is focused more on the day-to-day operations of the department/unit.
10. She finds out that some managers have benevolent-authoritative style of management. Which of the following behaviors will she exhibit most likely?
A.Have condescending trust and confidence in their subordinates
B.Gives economic or ego awards
C.Communicates downward to the staff
D.Allows decision making among subordinates

Answer: (A) Have condescending trust and confidence in their subordinates
Benevolent-authoritative managers pretentiously show their trust and confidence to their followers
11. Harry is a Unit Manager I the Medical Unit. He is not satisfied with the way things are going in his unit. Patient satisfaction rate is 60% for two consecutive months and staff morale is at its lowest. He decides to plan and initiate changes that will push for a turnaround in the condition of the unit. Which of the following actions is a priority for Harry?
A.Call for a staff meeting and take this up in the agenda.
B.Seek help from her manager.
C.Develop a strategic action on how to deal with these concerns.
D.Ignore the issues since these will be resolved naturally.

Answer: (A) Call for a staff meeting and take this up in the agenda.
This will allow for the participation of every staff in the unit. If they contribute to the solutions of the problem, they will own the solutions; hence the chance for compliance would be greater.
12. She knows that there are external forces that influence changes in his unit. Which of the following is NOT an external force?
A.Memo from the CEO to cut down on electrical consumption
B.Demands of the labor sector to increase wages
C.Low morale of staff in her unit
D.Exacting regulatory and accreditation standards

Answer: (C) Low morale of staff in her unit
Low morale of staff is an internal factor that affects only the unit. All the rest of the options emanate from the top executive or from outside the institution.
13. After discussing the possible effects of the low patient satisfaction rate, the staff started to list down possible strategies to solve the problems head-on. Should they decide to vote on the best change strategy, which of the following strategies is referred to this?
A.Collaboration
B.Majority rule
C.Dominance
D.Compromise

Answer: (B) Majority rule
Majority rule involves dividing the house and the highest vote wins.1/2 + 1 is a majority.
14. One staff suggests that they review the pattern of nursing care that they are using, which is described as a
A.job description
B.system used to deliver care
C.manual of procedure
D.rules to be followed

Answer: (B) system used to deliver care
A system used to deliver care. In the 70’s it was termed as methods of patient assignment; in the early 80’s it was called modalities of patient care then patterns of nursing care in the 90’s until recently authors called it nursing care systems.
15. Which of the following is TRUE about functional nursing?
A.Concentrates on tasks and activities
B.Emphasizes use of group collaboration
C.One-to-one nurse-patient ratio
D.Provides continuous, coordinated and comprehensive nursing services

Answer: (A) Concentrates on tasks and activities
Functional nursing is focused on tasks and activities and not on the holistic care of the patients

16. Functional nursing has some advantages, which one is an EXCEPTION?
A.Psychological and sociological needs are emphasized.
B.Great control of work activities.
C.Most economical way of delivering nursing services.
D.Workers feel secure in dependent role

Answer: (A) Psychological and sociological needs are emphasized.
When the functional method is used, the psychological and sociological needs of the patients are neglected; the patients are regarded as ‘tasks to be done ‘
17. He raised the issue on giving priority to patient needs. Which of the following offers the best way for setting priority?
A.Assessing nursing needs and problems
B.Giving instructions on how nursing care needs are to be met
C.Controlling and evaluating the delivery of nursing care
D.Assigning safe nurse: patient ratio

Answer: (A) Assessing nursing needs and problems
This option follows the framework of the nursing process at the same time applies the management process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling
18. Which of the following is the best guarantee that the patient’s priority needs are met?
A.Checking with the relative of the patient
B.Preparing a nursing care plan in collaboration with the patient
C.Consulting with the physician
D.Coordinating with other members of the team

Answer: (B) Preparing a nursing care plan in collaboration with the patient
The best source of information about the priority needs of the patient is the patient himself. Hence using a nursing care plan based on his expressed priority needs would ensure meeting his needs effectively.
19. When Harry uses team nursing as a care delivery system, he and his team need to assess the priority of care for a group of patients, which of the following should be a priority?
A.Each patient as listed on the worksheet
B.Patients who needs least care
C.Medications and treatments required for all patients
D.Patients who need the most care

Answer: (D) Patients who need the most care
In setting priorities for a group of patients, those who need the most care should be number-one priority to ensure that their critical needs are met adequately. The needs of other patients who need less care ca be attended to later or even delegated to assistive personnel according to rules on delegation.
20. She is hopeful that her unit will make a big turnaround in the succeeding months. Which of the following actions of Harry demonstrates that he has reached the third stage of change?
A.Wonders why things are not what it used to be
B.Finds solutions to the problems
C.Integrate the solutions to his day-to-day activities
D.Selects the best change strategy

Answer: (C) Integrate the solutions to his day-to-day activities
Integrate the solutions to his day-to-day activities is  expected to happen during the third stage of change when the change agent incorporate the selected solutions to his system and begins to create a change.
21. Julius is a newly-appointed nurse manager of The Good Shepherd Medical Center, a tertiary hospital located within the heart of the metropolis. He thinks of scheduling planning workshop with his staff in order to ensure an effective and efficient management of the department. Should he decide to conduct a strategic planning workshop, which of the following is NOT a characteristic of this activity?
A.Long-term goal-setting
B.Extends to 3-5 years in the future
C.Focuses on routine tasks
D.Determines directions of the organization

Answer: (C) Focuses on routine tasks
Strategic planning involves options A, B and D except C which is attributed to operational planning
22. Which of the following statements refer to the vision of the hospital?
A.The Good Shepherd Medical Center is a trendsetter in tertiary health care in the Philippines in the next five years
B.The officers and staff of The Good Shepherd Medical Center believe in the unique nature of the human person
C.All the nurses shall undergo continuing competency training program.
D.The Good Shepherd Medical Center aims to provide a patient-centered care in a total healing environment.

Answer: (A) The Good Shepherd Medical Center is a trendsetter in tertiary health care in the Philippines in the next five years
A vision refers to what the institution wants to become within a particular period of time.

23. The statement, “The Good Shepherd Medical Center aims to provide patient-centered care in a total healing environment” refers to which of the following?
A.Vision
B.Goal
C.Philosophy
D.Mission

Answer: (B) Goal
B
24. Julius plans to revisit the organizational chart of the department. He plans to create a new position of a Patient Educator who has a coordinating relationship with the head nurse in the unit. Which of the following will likely depict this organizational relationship?
A.Box
B.Solid line
C.Broken line
D.Dotted line

Answer: (C) Broken line
This is a staff relationship hence it is depicted by a broken line in the organizational structure
25. He likewise stresses the need for all the employees to follow orders and instructions from him and not from anyone else. Which of the following principles does he refer to?
A.Scalar chain
B.Discipline
C.Unity of command
D.Order

Answer: (C) Unity of command
The principle of unity of command means that employees should receive orders coming from only one manager and not from two managers. This averts the possibility of sowing confusion among the members of the organization
26. Julius orients his staff on the patterns of reporting relationship throughout the organization. Which of the following principles refer to this?
A.Span of control
B.Hierarchy
C.Esprit d’ corps
D.Unity of direction

Answer: (B) Hierarchy
Hierarchy refers to the pattern of reporting or the formal line of authority in an organizational structure.
27. He emphasizes to the team that they need to put their efforts together towards the attainment of the goals of the program. Which of the following principles refers to this?
A.Span of control
B.Unity of direction
C.Unity of command
D.Command responsibility

Answer: (B) Unity of direction
Unity of direction means having one goal or one objective for the team to pursue; hence all members of the organization should put their efforts together towards the attainment of their common goal or objective.

28. Julius stresses the importance of promoting ‘esprit d corps’ among the members of the unit. Which of the following remarks of the staff indicates that they understand what he pointed out?
A.“Let’s work together in harmony; we need to be supportive of one another”
B.“In order that we achieve the same results; we must all follow the directives of Julius and not from other managers.”
C.“We will ensure that all the resources we need are available when needed.”
D.“We need to put our efforts together in order to raise the bar of excellence in the care we provide to all our patients.”

Answer: (A) “Let’s work together in harmony; we need to be supportive of one another”
The principle of ‘esprit d’ corps’ refers to promoting harmony in the workplace, which is essential in maintaining a climate conducive to work.
29. He discusses the goal of the department. Which of the following statements is a goal?
A.Increase the patient satisfaction rate
B.Eliminate the incidence of delayed administration of medications
C.Establish rapport with patients.
D.Reduce response time to two minutes.

Answer: (A) Increase the patient satisfaction rate
Goal is a desired result towards which efforts are directed. Options AB, C and D are all objectives which are aimed at specific end.
30. He wants to influence the customary way of thinking and behaving that is shared by the members of the department. Which of the following terms refer to this?
A.Organizational chart
B.Cultural network
C.Organizational structure
D.Organizational culture

Answer: (D) Organizational culture
An organizational culture refers to the way the members of the organization think together and do things around them together. It’s their way of life in that organization
31. He asserts the importance of promoting a positive organizational culture in their unit. Which of the following behaviors indicate that this is attained by the group?
A.Proactive and caring with one another
B.Competitive and perfectionist
C.Powerful and oppositional
D.Obedient and uncomplaining

Answer: (A) Proactive and caring with one another
Positive culture is based on humanism and affiliative norms
32. Stephanie is a new Staff Educator of a private tertiary hospital. She conducts orientation among new staff nurses in her department. Joseph, one of the new staff nurses, wants to understand the channel of communication, span of control and lines of communication. Which of the following will provide this information?
A.Organizational structure
B.Policy
C.Job description
D.Manual of procedures

Answer: (A) Organizational structure
Organizational structure provides information on the channel of authority, i.e., who reports to whom and with what authority; the number of people who directly reports to the various levels of hierarchy and the lines of communication whether line or staff.
33. Stephanie is often seen interacting with the medical intern during coffee breaks and after duty hours. What type of organizational structure is this?
A.Formal
B.Informal
C.Staff
D.Line

Answer: (B) Informal
This is usually not published and oftentimes concealed.
34. She takes pride in saying that the hospital has a decentralized structure. Which of the following is NOT compatible with this type of model?
A.Flat organization
B.Participatory approach
C.Shared governance
D.Tall organization

Answer: (D) Tall organization
Tall organizations are highly centralized organizations where decision making is centered on one authority level.
35. Centralized organizations have some advantages. Which of the following statements are TRUE?
1. Highly cost-effective
2. Makes management easier
3. Reflects the interest of the worker
4. Allows quick decisions or actions.

A. 1 & 2
B.2 & 4
C.2, 3& 4
D.1, 2, & 4

Answer: (A) 1 & 2
Centralized organizations are needs only a few managers hence they are less expensive and easier to manage
36. Stephanie delegates effectively if she has authority to act, which is BEST defined as:
A.having responsibility to direct others
B.being accountable to the organization
C.having legitimate right to act
D.telling others what to do

Answer: (C) having legitimate right to act
Authority is a legitimate or official right to give command. This is an officially sanctioned responsibility

37. Regardless of the size of a work group, enough staff must be available at all times to accomplish certain purposes. Which of these purposes is NOT included?
A.Meet the needs of patients
B.Provide a pair of hands to other units as needed
C.Cover all time periods adequately.
D.Allow for growth and development of nursing staff.

Answer: (B) Provide a pair of hands to other units as needed
Providing a pair of hands for other units is not a purpose in doing an effective staffing process. This is a function of a staffing coordinator at a centralized model.

38. Which of the following guidelines should be least considered in formulating objectives for nursing care?
A.Written nursing care plan
B.Holistic approach
C.Prescribed standards
D.Staff preferences

Answer: (D) Staff preferences
Staff preferences should be the least priority in formulating objectives of nursing care. Individual preferences should be subordinate to the interest of the patients.
41. Stephanie considers shifting to transformational leadership. Which of the following statements best describes this type of leadership?
A.Uses visioning as the essence of leadership.
B.Serves the followers rather than being served.
C.Maintains full trust and confidence in the subordinates
D.Possesses innate charisma that makes others feel good in his presence.

Answer: (A) Uses visioning as the essence of leadership.
Transformational leadership relies heavily on visioning as the core of leadership.
42. As a manager, she focuses her energy on both the quality of services rendered to the patients as well as the welfare of the staff of her unit. Which of the following management styles does she adopt?
A.Country club management
B.Organization man management
C.Team management
D.Authority-obedience management

Answer: (C) Team management
Team management has a high concern for services and high concern for staff.
43. Katherine is a young Unit Manager of the Pediatric Ward. Most of her staff nurses are senior to her, very articulate, confident and sometimes aggressive. Katherine feels uncomfortable believing that she is the scapegoat of everything that goes wrong in her department. Which of the following is the best action that she must take?
A.Identify the source of the conflict and understand the points of friction
B.Disregard what she feels and continue to work independently
C.Seek help from the Director of Nursing
D.Quit her job and look for another employment.

Answer: (A) Identify the source of the conflict and understand the points of friction
This involves a problem solving approach, which addresses the root cause of the problem.
44. As a young manager, she knows that conflict occurs in any organization. Which of the following statements regarding conflict is NOT true?
A.Can be destructive if the level is too high
B.Is not beneficial; hence it should be prevented at all times
C.May result in poor performance
D.May create leaders

Answer: (B) Is not beneficial; hence it should be prevented at all times
Conflicts are beneficial because it surfaces out issues in the open and can be solved right away. Likewise, members of the team become more conscientious with their work when they are aware that other members of the team are watching them.
45. Katherine tells one of the staff, “I don’t have time to discuss the matter with you now. See me in my office later” when the latter asks if they can talk about an issue. Which of the following conflict resolution strategies did she use?
A.Smoothing
B.Compromise
C.Avoidance
D.Restriction

Answer: (C) Avoidance
This strategy shuns discussing the issue head-on and prefers to postpone it to a later time. In effect the problem remains unsolved and both parties are in a lose-lose situation.
46. Kathleen knows that one of her staff is experiencing burnout. Which of the following is the best thing for her to do?
A.Advise her staff to go on vacation.
B.Ignore her observations; it will be resolved even without intervention
C.Remind her to show loyalty to the institution.
D.Let the staff ventilate her feelings and ask how she can be of help.

Answer: (D) Let the staff ventilate her feelings and ask how she can be of help.
Reaching out and helping the staff is the most effective strategy in dealing with burn out. Knowing that someone is ready to help makes the staff feel important; hence her self-worth is enhanced.
47. She knows that performance appraisal consists of all the following activities EXCEPT:
A.Setting specific standards and activities for individual performance.
B.Using agency standards as a guide.
C.Determine areas of strength and weaknesses
D.Focusing activity on the correction of identified behavior.

Answer: (D) Focusing activity on the correction of identified behavior.
Performance appraisal deal with both positive and negative performance; is not meant to be a fault-finding activity
48. Which of the following statements is NOT true about performance appraisal?
A.Informing the staff about the specific impressions of their work help improve their performance.
B.A verbal appraisal is an acceptable substitute for a written report
C.Patients are the best source of information regarding personnel appraisal.
D.The outcome of performance appraisal rests primarily with the staff.

Answer: (C) Patients are the best source of information regarding personnel appraisal.
The patient can be a source of information about the performance of the staff but it is never the best source. Directly observing the staff is the best source of information for personnel appraisal.
49. There are times when Katherine evaluates her staff as she makes her daily rounds. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of conducting an informal appraisal?
A.The staff member is observed in natural setting.
B.Incidental confrontation and collaboration is allowed.
C.The evaluation is focused on objective data systematically.
D.The evaluation may provide valid information for compilation of a formal report.

Answer: (C) The evaluation is focused on objective data systematically.
Collecting objective data systematically can not be achieved in an informal appraisal. It is focused on what actually happens in the natural work setting.
50. She conducts a 6-month performance review session with a staff member. Which of the following actions is appropriate?
A.She asks another nurse to attest the session as a witness.
B.She informs the staff that she may ask another nurse to read the appraisal before the session is over.
C.She tells the staff that the session is manager-centered.
D.The session is private between the two members.

Answer: (D) The session is private between the two members.
The session is private between the manager and the staff and remains to be so when the two parties do not divulge the information to others.

51. Alexandra is tasked to organize the new wing of the hospital. She was given the authority to do as she deems fit. 51. She is aware that the director of nursing has substantial trust and confidence in her capabilities, communicates through downward and upward channels and usually uses the ideas and opinions of her staff. Which of the following is her style of management?
A.Benevolent –authoritative
B.Consultative
C.Exploitive-authoritative
D.Participative

Answer: (B) Consultative
A consultative manager is almost like a participative manager. The participative manager has complete trust and confidence in the subordinate, always uses the opinions and ideas of subordinates and communicates in all directions.
52. She decides to illustrate the organizational structure. Which of the following elements is NOT included?
A.Level of authority
B.Lines of communication
C.Span of control
D.Unity of direction

Answer: (D) Unity of direction
Unity of direction is a management principle, not an element of an organizational structure.
53. She plans of assigning competent people to fill the roles designed in the hierarchy. Which process refers to this?
A.Staffing
B.Scheduling
C.Recruitment
D.Induction

Answer: (A) Staffing
Staffing is a management function involving putting the best people to accomplish tasks and activities to attain the goals of the organization.

54. She checks the documentary requirements for the applicants for staff nurse position. Which one is NOT necessary?
A.Certificate of previous employment
B.Record of related learning experience (RLE)
C.Membership to accredited professional organization
D.Professional identification card

Answer: (B) Record of related learning experience (RLE)
Record of RLE is not required for employment purposes but it is required for the nurse’s licensure examination.
55. Which phase of the employment process includes getting on the payroll and completing documentary requirements?
A.Orientation
B.Induction
C.Selection
D.Recruitment

Answer: (B) Induction
This step in the recruitment process gives time for the staff to submit all the documentary requirements for employment.

56. She tries to design an organizational structure that allows communication to flow in all directions and involve workers in decision making. Which form of organizational structure is this?
A.Centralized
B.Decentralized
C.Matrix
D.Informal

Answer: (B) Decentralized
Decentralized structures allow the staff to make decisions on matters pertaining to their practice and communicate in downward, upward, lateral and diagonal flow.
57. In a horizontal chart, the lowest level worker is located at the
A.Left most box
B.Middle
C.Right most box
D.Bottom

Answer: (C) Rightmost box
The leftmost box is occupied by the highest authority while the lowest level worker occupies the rightmost box.
58. She decides to have a decentralized staffing system. Which of the following is an advantage of this system of staffing?
A.greater control of activities
B.Conserves time
C.Compatible with computerization
D.Promotes better interpersonal relationship

Answer: (D) Promotes better interpersonal relationship
Decentralized structures allow the staff to solve decisions by themselves, involve them in decision making; hence they are always given opportunities to interact with one another.
59. Aubrey thinks about primary nursing as a system to deliver care. Which of the following activities is NOT done by a primary nurse?
A.Collaborates with the physician
B.Provides care to a group of patients together with a group of nurses
C.Provides care for 5-6 patients during their hospital stay.
D.Performs comprehensive initial assessment

Answer: (B) Provides care to a group of patients together with a group of nurses
This function is done in team nursing where the nurse is a member of a team that provides care for a group of patients.
60. Which pattern of nursing care involves the care given by a group of paraprofessional workers led by a professional nurse who take care of patients with the same disease conditions and are located geographically near each other?
A.Case method
B.Modular nursing
C.Nursing case management
D.Team nursing

Answer: (B) Modular nursing
Modular nursing is a variant of team nursing. The difference lies in the fact that the members in modular nursing are paraprofessional workers.
61. St. Raphael Medical Center just opened its new Performance Improvement Department. Ms. Valencia is appointed as the Quality Control Officer. She commits herself to her new role and plans her strategies to realize the goals and objectives of the department. Which of the following is a primary task that they should perform to have an effective control system?
A.Make an interpretation about strengths and weaknesses
B.Identify the values of the department
C.Identify structure, process, outcome standards & criteria
D.Measure actual performances

Answer: (B) Identify the values of the department
Identify the values of the department will set the guiding principles within which the department will operate its activities 
62. Ms. Valencia develops the standards to be followed. Among the following standards, which is considered as a structure standard?
A.The patients verbalized satisfaction of the nursing care received
B.Rotation of duty will be done every four weeks for all patient care personnel.
C.All patients shall have their weights taken recorded
D.Patients shall answer the evaluation form before discharge

Answer: (B) Rotation of duty will be done every four weeks for all patient care personnel.
Structure standards include management system, facilities, equipment, materials needed to deliver care to patients. Rotation of duty is a management system.
63. When she presents the nursing procedures to be followed, she refers to what type of standards?
A.Process
B.Outcome
C.Structure
D.Criteria

Answer: (A) Process
Process standards include care plans, nursing procedure to be done to address the needs of the patients.

64. The following are basic steps in the controlling process of the department. Which of the following is NOT included?
A.Measure actual performance
B.Set nursing standards and criteria
C.Compare results of performance to standards and objectives
D.Identify possible courses of action

Answer: (D) Identify possible courses of action
This is a step in a quality control process and not a basic step in the control process.

65. Which of the following statements refers to criteria?
A.Agreed on level of nursing care
B.Characteristics used to measure the level of nursing care
C.Step-by-step guidelines
D.Statement which guide the group in decision making and problem solving

Answer: (B) Characteristics used to measure the level of nursing care
Criteria are specific characteristics used to measure the standard of care.
66. She wants to ensure that every task is carried out as planned. Which of the following tasks is NOT included in the controlling process?
A.Instructing the members of the standards committee to prepare policies
B.Reviewing the existing policies of the hospital
C.Evaluating the credentials of all nursing staff
D.Checking if activities conform to schedule

Answer: (A) Instructing the members of the standards committee to prepare policies
Instructing the members involves a directing function.
67. Ms. Valencia prepares the process standards. Which of the following is NOT a process standard?
A.Initial assessment shall be done to all patients within twenty four hours upon admission.
B.Informed consent shall be secured prior to any invasive procedure
C.Patients’ reports 95% satisfaction rate prior to discharge from the hospital.
D.Patient education about their illness and treatment shall be provided for all patients and their families.

Answer: (C) Patients’ reports 95% satisfaction rate prior to discharge from the hospital.
This refers to an outcome standard, which is a result of the care that is rendered to the patient.
68. Which of the following is evidence that the controlling process is effective?
A.The things that were planned are done
B.Physicians do not complain.
C.Employees are contended
D.There is an increase in customer satisfaction rate.

Answer: (A) The things that were planned are done
Controlling is defined as seeing to it that what is planned is done.

69. Ms. Valencia is responsible to the number of personnel reporting to her. This principle refers to:
A.Span of control
B.Unity of command
C.Carrot and stick principle
D.Esprit d’ corps

Answer: (A) Span of control
Span of control refers to the number of workers who report directly to a manager.
70. She notes that there is an increasing unrest of the staff due to fatigue brought about by shortage of staff. Which action is a priority?
A.Evaluate the overall result of the unrest
B.Initiate a group interaction
C.Develop a plan and implement it
D.Identify external and internal forces.

Answer: (B) Initiate a group interaction
Initiate a group interaction will be an opportunity to discuss the problem in the open.
71. Kevin is a member of the Nursing Research Council of the hospital. His first assignment is to determine the level of patient satisfaction on the care they received from the hospital. He plans to include all adult patients admitted from April to May, with average length of stay of 3-4 days, first admission, and with no complications. Which of the following is an extraneous variable of the study?
A.Date of admission
B.Length of stay
C.Age of patients
D.Absence of complications

Answer: (C) Age of patients
An extraneous variable is not the primary concern of the researcher but has an effect on the results of the study. Adult patients may be young, middle or late adult.
72. He thinks of an appropriate theoretical framework. Whose theory addresses the four modes of adaptation?
A.Martha Rogers
B.Sr. Callista Roy
C.Florence Nightingale
D.Jean Watson

Answer: (B) Sr. Callista Roy
Sr. Callista Roy developed the Adaptation Model which involves the physiologic mode, self-concept mode, role function mode and dependence mode

73. He opts to use a self-report method. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about this method?
A.Most direct means of gathering information
B.Versatile in terms of content coverage
C.Most accurate and valid method of data gathering
D.Yields information that would be difficult to gather by another method

Answer: (C) Most accurate and valid method of data gathering
The most serious disadvantage of this method is accuracy and validity of information gathered
74. Which of the following articles would Kevin least consider for his review of literature?
A.“Story-Telling and Anxiety Reduction Among Pediatric Patients”
B.“Turnaround Time in Emergency Rooms”
C.“Outcome Standards in Tertiary Health Care Institutions”
D.“Environmental Manipulation and Client Outcomes”

Answer: (B) “Turnaround Time in Emergency Rooms”
The article is for pediatric patients and may not be relevant for adult patients.

75. Which of the following variables will he likely EXCLUDE in his study?
A.Competence of nurses
B.Caring attitude of nurses
C.Salary of nurses
D.Responsiveness of staff

Answer: (C) Salary of nurses
Salary of staff nurses is not an indicator of patient satisfaction, hence need not be included as a variable in the study.
76. He plans to use a Likert Scale to determine
A.degree of agreement and disagreement
B.compliance to expected standards
C.level of satisfaction
D.degree of acceptance

Answer: (A) degree of agreement and disagreement
Likert scale is a 5-point summated scale used to determine the degree of agreement or disagreement of the respondents to a statement in a study.

77. He checks if his instruments meet the criteria for evaluation. Which of the following criteria refers to the consistency or the ability to yield the same response upon its repeated administration?
A.Validity
B.Reliability
C.Sensitivity
D.Objectivity

Answer: (B) Reliability
Reliability is repeatability of the instrument; it can elicit the same responses even with varied administration of the instrument
78. Which criteria refer to the ability of the instrument to detect fine differences among the subjects being studied?
A.Sensitivity
B.Reliability
C.Validity
D.Objectivity

Answer: (A) Sensitivity
Sensitivity is an attribute of the instrument that allow the respondents to distinguish differences of the options where to choose from

79. Which of the following terms refer to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measure?
A.Validity
B.Reliability
C.Meaningfulness
D.Sensitivity

Answer: (A) Validity
Validity is ensuring that the instrument contains appropriate questions about the research topic
80. He plans for his sampling method. Which sampling method gives equal chance to all units in the population to get picked?
A.Random
B.Accidental
C.Quota
D.Judgment

Answer: (A) Random
Random sampling gives equal chance for all the elements in the population to be picked as part of the sample.

81. Raphael is interested to learn more about transcultural nursing because he is assigned at the family suites where most patients come from different cultures and countries. Which of the following designs is appropriate for this study?
A.Grounded theory
B.Ethnography
C.Case study
D.Phenomenology

Answer: (B) Ethnography
Ethnography is focused on patterns of behavior of selected people within a culture
82. The nursing theorist who developed transcultural nursing theory is
A.Dorothea Orem
B.Madeleine Leininger
C.Betty Newman
D.Sr. Callista Roy

Answer: (B) Madeleine Leininger
Madeleine Leininger developed the theory on transcultural theory based on her observations on the behavior of selected people within a culture
83. Which of the following statements best describes a phenomenological study?
A.Involves the description and interpretation of cultural behavior
B.Focuses on the meaning of experiences as those who experience it
C.Involves an in-depth study of an individual or group
D.Involves collecting and analyzing data that aims to develop theories grounded in real-world observations

Answer: (B) Focuses on the meaning of experiences as those who experience it
Phenomenological study involves understanding the meaning of experiences as those who experienced the phenomenon.
84. He systematically plans his sampling plan. Should he decides to include whoever patients are admitted during the study he uses what sampling method?
A.Judgment
B.Accidental
C.Random
D.Quota

Answer: (B) Accidental
Accidental sampling is a non-probability sampling method which includes those who are at the site during data collection.

85. He finally decides to use judgment sampling. Which of the following actions of Raphael is correct?
A.Plans to include whoever is there during his study.
B.Determines the different nationality of patients frequently admitted and decides to get representations samples from each.
C.Assigns numbers for each of the patients, place these in a fishbowl and draw 10 from it.
D.Decides to get 20 samples from the admitted patients

Answer: (B) Determines the different nationality of patients frequently admitted and decides to get representations samples from each.
Judgment sampling involves including samples according to the knowledge of the investigator about the participants in the study.

86. He knows that certain patients who are in a specialized research setting tend to respond psychologically to the conditions of the study. This is referred to as
A.Bias
B.Hawthorne effect
C.Halo effect
D.Horns effect

Answer: (B) Hawthorne effect
Hawthorne effect is based on the study of Elton Mayo and company about the effect of an intervention done to improve the working conditions of the workers on their productivity. It resulted to an increased productivity but not due to the intervention but due to the psychological effects of being observed. They performed differently because they were under observation.
87. Which of the following items refer to the sense of closure that Raphael experiences when data collection ceases to yield any new information?
A.Saturation
B.Precision
C.Limitation
D.Relevance

Answer: (A) Saturation
Saturation is achieved when the investigator can not extract new responses from the informants, but instead, gets the same responses repeatedly.

88. In qualitative research the actual analysis of data begins with:
A.search for themes
B.validation of thematic analysis
C.weave the thematic strands together
D.quasi statistics

Answer: (A) search for themes
The investigator starts data analysis by looking for themes from the verbatim responses of the informants.
89. Raphael is also interested to know the coping abilities of patients who are newly diagnosed to have terminal cancer. Which of the following types of research is appropriate?
A.Phenomenological
B.Ethnographic
C.Grounded Theory
D.Case Study

Answer: (C) Grounded Theory
Grounded theory inductively develops a theory based on the observed processes involving selected people
90. Which of the following titles of the study is appropriate for this study?
A.Lived Experiences of Terminally-Ill Cancer Patients
B.Coping Skills of Terminally-Ill Cancer Patients in a Selected Hospital
C.Two Case Studies of Terminally-Ill Patients in Manila
D.Beliefs & Practices of Patients with Terminal Cancer

Answer: (B) Coping Skills of Terminally-Ill Cancer Patients in a Selected Hospital
The title has a specific phenomenon, sample and research locale.
91. Ms. Montana plans to conduct a research on the use of a new method of pain assessment scale. Which of the following is the second step in the conceptualizing phase of the research process?
A.Formulating the research hypothesis
B.Review related literature
C.Formulating and delimiting the research problem
D.Design the theoretical and conceptual framework

Answer: (B) Review related literature
After formulating and delimiting the research problem, the researcher conducts a review of related literature to determine the extent of what has been done on the study by previous researchers.

92. Which of the following codes of research ethics requires informed consent in all cases governing human subjects?
A.Helsinki Declaration
B.Nuremberg Code
C.Belmont Report
D.ICN Code of Ethics

Answer: (A) Helsinki Declaration
Helsinki Declaration is the first international attempt to set up ethical standards in research involving human research subjects.
93. Which of the following ethical principles was NOT articulated in the Belmont Report?
A.Beneficence
B.Respect for human dignity
C.Justice
D.Non-maleficence

Answer: (D) Non-maleficence
Non-maleficence is not articulated in the Belmont Report. It only includes beneficence, respect for human dignity and justice.
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